Raising retirement ages or cutting benefits will only have an impact 17 years from now, and would still only affect Social Security benefit payouts, not the National Debt.
How does Social Security work? The Social Security Trust Fund holds special Treasury Bonds, bought whenever there is more collected in Social Security payroll taxes than is paid out in Social Security benefits. Those bonds fund part of the national debt, to the tune of $2.8 trillion. When benefits paid exceed revenues, Social Security's special Treasury Bonds are redeemed. At the time of redemption, new regular Treasury Bonds are sold. Money given to Social Security for redeeming the special bonds is offset by money from the sale of regular bonds, and there is no change in the national debt. Understand this, and you will see through politicians' lies.